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Objectives: APT Study To evaluate the effectiveness of a new cooling device (gel pad) with a standard regimen (ice pack) and compare these with a no localised treatment regimen (control).
Design: A randomised controlled trial initially based in the hospital and then continued in the community.
Setting: A Midwifery Unit in the North of England and then in women’s own homes.
Participants: 450 women who had undergone either a normal or an instrumental delivery that required suturing of an episiotomy or second-degree tear.
Key Conclusions: This clinical trial confirms earlier findings in a previous study and provides evidence that the use of a specifically designed cooling gel pad is a safe and effective localised method to alleviate perineal trauma without any adverse effects on healing.
APT Study download PDF format (download)
African Midwives Conference, Africa 2003 (download)
Dr Mary Steen delivered a paper ‘Alleviating Perineal trauma’ (Download)
Health Care Journals
Health Care Journals Dr Mary Steen has had many papers published in medical journals. These journals are mostly subscription only and articles cannot be reproduced here for copyright reasons.
A list of the journals appears below with links to their websites. Not all Mary’s articles are archived online – volume numbers and dates are provided for reference
RCM Midwives Journal:
Journal of Wound Care:
British Journal of Midwifery: