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Product inventor and researcher Professor Mary Steen


APT Study



APT Study To evaluate the effectiveness of a a new cooling device (gel pad) with a standard regimen (ice pack) and compare these with a no localised treatment regimen (control).



A randomised controlled trial initially based in hospital and then continued in the community.



A Midwifery Unit in the North of England and then in women's own homes.



450 women who had undergone either a normal or an instrumental delivery that required suturing of an episiotomy or second degree tear.


Key Conclusions:

This clinical trial confirms earlier findings in a previous study and provides evidence that the use of a specifically designed cooling gel pad is a safe and effective localised method to alleviate perineal trauma without any adverse effects on healing.


APT Study download PDF format

(Download 84kb PDF document)


APT Study Presentation Powerpoint Presentation

(Download 5.1mb PDF document)


African Midwives Conference, Africa 2003

Dr Mary Steen delivered a paper 'Alleviating Perineal trauma' (Download 692.5kb Powerpoint presentation)


Health Care Journals

Health Care Journals Dr Mary Steen has had many papers published in medical journals. These journals are mostly subscription only and articles cannot be reproduced here for copyright reasons.


A list of the journals appears below with links to their websites. Not all Mary's articles are archived online - volume numbers and dates are provided for reference


RCM Midwives Journal:

Vol 4 No 8 August 2001


International Midwifery:

Vol 16 No 1 March 2000


Midwifery Digest:

Vol 8 No 2 June 1998: Vol 12 No 3 September 2002: Vol 14 No 1 March 2004


Journal of Wound Care:

Vol 6 No 9 October 1997, Vol 8 No 2 February 1999


British Journal of Midwifery:

Vol 6 No 7 July 1998, Vol 6 No 9 September 1998, Vol 11 No 5 May 2003